Types Of Fish Ponds You Can Use In Nigeria

Fish ponds
Types of fish ponds

Fish farming is a very lucrative business that persons with the right types of fish ponds and management can make a substantial amount of money from.

When starting a fish farm, major requirements are fish ponds. Oftentimes, the types of fish ponds to raise has kept intending fish farmers in a state of dilemma.

The choice to make from the various fish ponds depends on a few factors which might include but are not exclusively dependent on; capital, the quantity of fish you intend to raise, location of the farm amongst others.

Fish ponds
Fish ponds

In this article, I will be educating you on the type of fish ponds you can use for fish farming along with the advantages and disadvantages of each pond I will be mentioning.

To begin with, let’s understand what a fish pond is.

A fish pond is containment that can hold water and was built for the purpose of rearing fishes and is made conducive for fishes to live.

The importance of this containment can not be overemphasized because it is a determinant factor of whether your practice of fish farming will thrive or not.

From experience gathered from several years of fish farming practice, I have decided to compile a list of fish ponds you can use to practice fish farming.

Earthen pond

Fish ponds
Earthen fish pond

An earthen pond is the nearest to the natural habitation of fishes (catfish, tilapia, etc) it is like rivers and streams.

It is constructed suitably to the design of the fish farmer, it is mostly built in a sloppy or waterlogged area to accommodate fishes and give them a feeling similar to their natural habitat.

An earthen pond is simply a man-made dam, a reservoir constructed by digging a hole that has a depth of at least 1.5 meters.

Advantages of earthen pond

  1. It is a close to natural water type of pond good for raising fish.
  2. Fishes tend to eat natural food like worms unlike other types of fish ponds.
  3. Fishes grow faster in an earthen pond.
  4. The maintenance cost is low.
  5. It is easy to control the water system in an earthen pond.

Disadvantages of earthen pond

  1. It is very difficult to control in events of flood.
  2. It is difficult to discern disease outbreaks and also difficult to control the outbreak.
  3. Sorting becomes difficult in an earthen pond, this gives room for cannibalism (I.e bigger and strong fishes eating smaller and weaker ones).
  4. One other disadvantage of an earthen pond is that you need to own your land to construct the pond to start fish farming.
  5. You can not rent a space and start digging big holes. This makes it capital intensive.

Concrete pond

Fish ponds
Concrete fish pond

Another type of pond you can use to raise fish is a concrete pond.

This is commonly used by fish farmers to raise fish, especially catfish.

A Concrete pond is constructed using blocks, sands, and cement to build a containment that can hold water and be used to raise fish.

Constructing concrete fish ponds requires a high level of professionalism and expertise compared to the construction of other types of fish ponds.

This is so because any error made during the construction process can lead to leakages and the cost of repair is oftentimes high.

A major advantage the concrete pond has over the earthen pond is that it can be constructed anywhere including your residence.

Advantages of concrete pond

  1. It is not selective of soil type, unlike earthen pond that prefers clay soil.
  2. A concrete pond makes it easier to manage young fishes such as fingerlings and juveniles.
  3. It is easy to notice fish diseases and also easy to control the diseases.
  4. A concrete pond cannot be affected by a flood because the water source is controlled by the farmer.
  5. The water system can be conveniently and easily managed.
  6. It usually lasts longer than the other type of fish ponds if properly managed.

Disadvantages of concrete pond

  1. It is expensive to construct.
  2. For the successfully running of a fish farm, a large amount of water is required in a concrete pond.
  3. If not properly disposed of, water waste can constitute a nuisance to the environment.
  4. The maintenance cost is high.

Tarpaulin pond

Fish ponds
Tarpaulin fish pond

The third type of pond I’ll talk about in this article is the tarpaulin pond. This type of pond is also very common.

It is usually constructed either with wood or galvanized pipes and then properly covered with a tarpaulin.

Tarpaulin fish ponds can be built in different sizes and colors.

Its major advantage over other types of fish ponds is the ease with which it can be set up.

Advantages of tarpaulin pond

  1. Low cost of maintenance compared to a concrete pond and earthen ponds.
  2. It can be easily set up.
  3. It can be moved around with ease.
  4. Tarpaulin pond does not require so much space.

Disadvantages Of Tarpaulin Pond

  1. It can easily tear and wear.
  2. Due to its flexibility, wind and rain/flood can quickly destroy the pond.

Cage or pen fish ponds

Fish ponds
Cage pond

The last type of pond for fish farming I will mention here is the cage pond.

This type of pond is usually constructed inside a natural water body.

Cage ponds are constructed and immersed in the middle of oceans and large bodies of water.

They are held and surrounded by pegs strong enough to hold them.

Advantages of cage or pen ponds

  1. Fishes feed naturally as they are raised in natural water bodies (their natural habitat).
  2. You can stock as many fishes as you want.
  3. Fishes tend to grow faster in this type of pond.

Disadvantages of cage or pen ponds

  1. In the case of water pollution, you can lose all of your fish.
  2. This type of pond is susceptible to poaching.
  3. A high level of security is required to succeed in raising fish in this type of pond.


In conclusion, there are other things you will need to start a fish farming business, but ponds are very important as the other requirements for fish farming activities.

Fish ponds
Types of fish ponds

Your choice of a pond in fish farming will largely depend on your location, purpose of farming (commercial or subsistent farming), the quantity of fish you intend to raise, and capital amongst other things.

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